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Flow bypass was found to increase with increasing fin density and clearance, while remaining relatively insensitive to inlet duct velocity.[26]. [7] Aluminium alloy 1050 has one of the higher thermal conductivity values at 229 W/m•K [8] but is mechanically soft. To ensure that the component does not overheat, a thermal engineer seeks to find an efficient heat transfer path from the device to the environment. A theoretical model is normally used as a first order estimate. Strong mechanical adhesion. When the air flow through the heat sink decreases, this results in an increase in the average air temperature. Certain, you perhaps recognized that having the ability to reserve manuals online significantly raised the information committed to shipping manuals from limb to limb, yet this publication makes it cement satisfaction of category. In order to determine the heat sink thermal resistance, the flow rate, input power, inlet air temperature and heat sink base temperature need to be known. Here the surface properties may be an important design factor. Heat sink is a direct practical means of combating the undesirable thermal effects e.g. The most common heat sink materials are aluminium alloys. For each interface between two objects in contact with each other, there will be a temperature drop across the interface. More details on heat sink testing methods and common oversights can be found in Azar, et al.[30]. The use of RoHS solder must be allowed for because such solder is mechanically weaker than traditional Pb/Sn solder. Easy removal/rework. For larger heat sinks and higher preloads, push pins with compression springs are very effective. In this case, finned heat sinks operating in either natural-convection or forced-flow will not be affected significantly by surface emissivity. Heat Sink Wiring Diagram give our company lots of both. Generally, the transistor is fixed on a metal sheet (usually aluminum) so that additional heat is transferred to the Aluminum sheet. and DeWitt, D.P., 1985, Introduction to heat transfer, John Wiley and sons, NY. A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink[1]) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature. Pid Wiring Diagram With Heat Sink Pid Wiring Diagram With Heat Sink Chapter 1 : Pid Wiring Diagram With Heat Sink arduino pid controlled lee 4-20 metal melting pot : 8 -place the heat sink and attach it to the cover using a couple of self tapping screws. {\displaystyle R_{hs}} As such, a heat sink is included in the design to disperse heat. The other end accepts a screw which compresses the spring, completing the assembly. This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 21:37. Similar to the Foster thermal model, you need to connect a thermal source or additional thermal components to the H node so that the heat has somewhere to flow. The power supplies of electronics are not 100% efficient, so extra heat is produced that may be detrimental to the function of the device. A heat sink radiator should be at least 10% of the KW output of the “maximum output to water” of the stove (more if the stove manual says so and I have seen figures as high as 20%). {\displaystyle t_{b}} They can be damaged by heat, use a heat sink until you can solder quickly. When both of these temperatures are on the order of 0 °C to 100 °C, the contribution of radiation compared to convection is generally small, and this factor is often neglected. In our article Solar Greenhouse Heat Sink we introduced a simple method of keeping a greenhouse frost free at night, and also a little cooler in the day when it can otherwise get too hot on sunny days even in the winter.. The epoxy bond between the heat sink and component is semi-permanent/permanent. Heat Pump Information. Active heat sink fan controller presented here is a very simple yet highly useful circuit for automatic control of cooling fans in active heat sink units. This tape is applied to the base of the heat sink, which is then attached to the component. Though it has an over-temperature cut-out. There are a total of 9 aluminium fins (k = 175 W/mK.C = 900 J kg K. P = 2700kg / 1) of rectangular cross-section, each 60 mm long, 40 mm wide and 1 mm thick. s To aid the heat sink you may wish to draw hot air into the heat sink. A typical graph as shown in Figure 5 conveys the thermal resistance characteristics for the heat sink in Figure 3. A Heat-sinks take many different forms, such as finned aluminium or copper sheets or blocks, often painted or anodised matt black to help dissipate heat more quickly. The heat sink could be the copper foil of a circuit board, or a separate heat sink mounted onto the component or circuit board. Heat transfer by radiation is a function of both the heat sink temperature, and the temperature of the surroundings that the heat sink is optically coupled with. While The LM317 is running. Thermal interface materials (TIM) are a common way to overcome these limitations. For germanium diodes use a heat sink. This makes sure that all the air goes through the channels formed by the fins of the heat sink. Devices that run cooler last longer. In industry, thermal analyses are often ignored in the design process or performed too late — when design changes are limited and become too costly. Heat sink is an electronic component or a device of an electronic circuit which disperses heat from other components (mainly from the power transistors) of a circuit into the surrounding medium and cools them for improving their performance, reliability and also avoids the premature failure of the components. The heat sink thermal resistance model consists of two resistances, namely the resistance in the heat sink base, Temporary heat sinks are sometimes used while soldering circuit boards, preventing excessive heat from damaging sensitive nearby electronics. [19] The push pins, typically made of brass or plastic, have a flexible barb at the end that engages with a hole in the PCB; once installed, the barb retains the pin. schema de Heat Sink Wiring Diagram. A heat sink transfers thermal energy from a higher temperature device to a lower temperature fluid medium. R m Heat transfer is therefore due to conduction across the actual contact area and to conduction (or natural convection) and radiation across the gaps. R The net result is a higher heat sink base temperature. The rate at which heat is transferred by conduction, Air has a thermal conductivity of 0.022 W/m•K[20] while TIMs have conductivities of 0.3 W/m•K[21] and higher. Custom designs. Schematic diagram of aluminum heat sink when T ∞, avg = 300 k and V ∞ = 1 m s (a, b) geometry mesh and enlarged area of heat sink geometry mesh; (c, d) heat flux vectors from bottom of heat sink to tip of the fins and enlarged area of heat flux vectors in the heat sink. Copper is less ductile than aluminium, so it cannot be extruded into heat sinks.[9][10]. Heat dissipation is an unavoidable by-product of electronic devices and circuits. The simplest heat sink could consist of a single piece of thermally conductive metal. [6] The contact between the device case and heat sink may have a thermal resistance of between 0.5 up to 1.7 °C/W, depending on the case size, and use of grease or insulating mica washer.[5]. And additionally, the thermal resistance of the heat sink will also increase. Thermal tapes, including graphite, polyimide, and aluminium tapes. Practical heat sinks for electronic devices must have a temperature higher than the surroundings to transfer heat by convection, radiation, and conduction. With the exception of thermal storage heat sinks, the term heat sink is a misnomer. Someone ask me. Heat Sink Wiring Diagram. Ducted flow is where the air is forced to flow through a channel which fits tightly over the heat sink. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool CPUs, GPUs, and some chipsets and RAM modules. [5], Commercial extruded aluminium heat sinks have a thermal resistance (heat sink to ambient air) ranging from 0.4 °C/W for a large sink meant for TO-3 devices, up to as high as 85 °C/W for a clip-on heat sink for a TO-92 small plastic case. Strong mechanical attachment. Heat-conducting paste can be used to improve heat flow from the transistor to the heat sink, this is especially important if an insulation kit is used. 1. The heat sink base thermal resistance, Matte-black surfaces will radiate much more efficiently than shiny bare metal. The presence or absence of a line determines the location of the physical device. The inlet air temperature of the heat sink is therefore higher, which also results in a higher heat sink base temperature. [citation needed] A second type of heat sink fin arrangement is the straight fin. However, power transistors used in circuits such as an audio amplifier or a motor speed controller will be partly on most of the time and V CE may be about half the supply voltage. A fin of a heat sink may be considered to be a flat plate with heat flowing in one end and being dissipated into the surrounding fluid as it travels to the other. Pid Wiring Diagram With Heat Sink - Inkbird pid wiring. The fluid medium is frequently air, but can also be water, refrigerants or oil. , and the resistance in the fins, To determine the thermal performance of a heat sink, a theoretical model can be made. The most typical damage caused by rework is the separation of the component die heat spreader from its package. Modern semiconductor devices, which are designed to be assembled by reflow soldering, can usually tolerate soldering temperatures without damage. Equations 6 and 7 are applicable for straight fins: Fin efficiency is increased by decreasing the fin aspect ratio (making them thicker or shorter), or by using more conductive material (copper instead of aluminium, for example). The idea of thermal resistance of a semiconductor heat sink is an approximation. Jun 19, 2019 - Heat sink can enhance the air heat dissipation effect. [11] As heat flows through the fin, the combination of the thermal resistance of the heat sink impeding the flow and the heat lost due to convection, the temperature of the fin and, therefore, the heat transfer to the fluid, will decrease from the base to the end of the fin. The voids present in the interface are filled with air. If a full-scale model is not available or not practical, scale models or dummy models can be used. On the left in the diagram below you can see where the thermally conductive paste goes. PCM heat sinks are exceptionally compact, lightweight, and offer increased reliability due to their passive operation. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink. But we do not need it hot. Available for processors and ball grid array (BGA) components, clips allow the attachment of a BGA heat sink directly to the component. On the other hand, electrical components such as magnetic reed switches can malfunction if exposed to hotter soldering irons, so this practice is still very much in use.[24]. The surfaces to which the epoxy is applied must be clean and free of any residue. Allows for pre-attachment. In addition to the mechanical attachment that the z-clip provides, it also permits using higher-performance thermal interface materials, such as phase change types.[19]. R Jun 19, 2019 - Heat sink can enhance the air heat dissipation effect. See the tried and tested circuit diagram of the 12V […] To decrease the spreading resistance in the base of a heat sink: A pin fin heat sink is a heat sink that has pins that extend from its base. A fan cools water as it moves through the tubes to dissipate heat. [28] and White.[29]. According to the size, shape and heat dissipation effect of the solid state relay, select the appropriate solid state relay heat sink. There is no reason why there shouldn't be a vent in the case with holes large enough for a little finger, as long as there's no chance of the user coming into contact with hot or live parts. b q 60 user reviews. Easy removal and installation. {\displaystyle R_{f}} Ceiling fan wiring diagram - with capacitor connection, Fluorescent Light Wiring Diagram | Tube Light Circuit, 12v Regulated Power Supply Circuit Diagram, Ceiling Fan Regulator Circuit - Motor Speed Controller, 12v to 5v dc-dc converter circuit diagram, Circuit design tutorial in CircuitMaker 5, Astable multivibrator-2 LED flashing circuit,2N3904,3.7V, Simple 12V fixed voltage power supply circuit diagram. Solar power fans that operate during the daytime are an easy way to accomplish this. Flaring the fins decreases flow resistance and makes more air go through the heat sink fin channel; otherwise, more air would bypass the fins. Nomenclature Ad Duct cross sectional area, mm 2 Ab Heat sink base area, mm 2 The result is that temperature of the transistor is sufficiently lowered. Anchors can be either soldered onto the board, or pushed through. Relatively long assembly time. Natural convection requires free flow of air over the heat sink. If it is not, then the base resistance is primarily spreading resistance: where Heat sink is a direct practical means of combating the undesirable thermal effects e.g. Both a heat sink and a … The increase in heat sink thermal resistance with decrease in flow rate will be shown later in this article. b Too great an insertion force can result in the die cracking and consequent component failure. A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Maximum air flow will increase the heat exchange performance of any oil or transmission fluid cooler. Powered By Blogger, As power transistor handle large currents, they always heat up during operation. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "GlacialTech announces Igloo FS125S 30W cold forged pin fin heatsink", "Overview of Cooling Methods for AC-DC and DC-DC Power Supplies", "Design Considerations for Thermal Management of Power Supplies", "Heatsink Design and Selection: Material", "Effects of Anodization on Radiational Heat Transfer - heat sinks", "Thermal management solutions for electronic equipment", "Effect of thermal environment on LED light emission and lifetime", "LED lighting: A case study in thermal management", "Heat sink testing methods and common oversights", "Heat Sink Calculator: Online Heat Sink Analysis and Design", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heat_sink&oldid=998323471, Articles needing additional references from December 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. For a satellite in space, a 100 °C (373 Kelvin) surface facing the Sun will absorb a lot of radiant heat, because the Sun's surface temperature is nearly 6000 Kelvin, whereas the same surface facing deep-space will radiate a lot of heat, since deep-space has an effective temperature of only a few Kelvin. Notations and definitions of the terms are as follows:Q: total power or rate of heat dissipation in W, represent the rate of heat dissipated by the electronic component durin… Thermal resistance is defined as temperature rise per unit of power, analogous to electrical resistance, and is expressed in units of degrees Celsius per watt (°C/W). Requires holes in the board which increases complexity of traces in PCB. Must have "keep out" zone around the BGA for the clip. Phase Change Material (PCM) heat sinks are the only heat sinks that actually act as a (temporary) sink for heat. Fourier's law of heat conduction, simplified to a one-dimensional form in the x-direction, shows that when there is a temperature gradient in a body, heat will be transferred from the higher temperature region to the lower temperature region. Use a flat edge (like a credit card) to evenly spread compound on heat spreader. Choose a different material with higher thermal conductivity, The method by which the heat sink is mounted on a component or processor. The experiments can have a limited range of problems and operating conditions. , can be calculated by the following formulas: The flow rate can be determined by the intersection of the heat sink system curve and the fan curve. If fins are not aligned vertically, or if fins are too close together to allow sufficient air flow between them, the efficiency of the heat sink will decline. This means that some fins are at a lower temperature than if the heat source were uniform across the base of the heat sink. Selection of a TIM is based on three parameters: the interface gap which the TIM must fill, the contact pressure, and the electrical resistivity of the TIM. The power supplies of electronics are not 100% efficient, so extra heat is produced that may be detrimental to the function of the device. . [12] To decrease the thermal contact resistance, the surface roughness can be decreased while the interface pressure is increased. In this article we will look in more detail at how the electrical part of the system is put together and how the solar panel, battery, and fan should be selected. Pin fin heat sink performance is significantly better than straight fins when used in their intended application where the fluid flows axially along the pins (see figure 17) rather than only tangentially across the pins. To use the z-clips, the printed circuit board must have anchors. They also allow for easy rework of components. "Wettability" is the percentage area of contact of a tape on a component. More expensive than tape or epoxy. Applies a preload to the thermal interface material, improving thermal performance. {\displaystyle {\dot {m}}} is the heat sink base thickness, LM317 heat sink calculator. One end is secured with a screw through a hole in the PCB. The inlet air temperature relates strongly with the heat sink base temperature. [30] However, the results are optimistic and can give misleading data when heat sinks are used in an unducted application. A birth place of electronic schematic circuit diagram, Copyright ©2011–document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) CircuitsTune.com All Rights Reserved. Online heat sink calculators[31] can provide a reasonable estimate of forced and natural convection heat sink performance based on a combination of theoretical and empirically derived correlations. In thermodynamics a heat sink is a heat reservoir that can absorb an arbitrary amount of heat without significantly changing temperature. It may be noted that the ability of any heat sink to transfer heat to the surrounding depends upon its material, volume, area, shape, contact between case and sink and movement of air around the sink. There are a total of 9 aluminium fins (k = 175 W/mK.C = 900 J kg K. P = 2700kg / 1 ) of rectangular cross-section, each 60 mm long, 40 mm wide and 1 mm thick. Category : Wiring Diagram; Post Date : October 21, 2020; Filled in: Wiring Diagram Heat Sink Wiring Diagram 9 out of 10 based on 20 ratings. Most epoxies are two-part liquid formulations that must be thoroughly mixed before being applied to the heat sink, and before the heat sink is placed on the component. Placing a conductive thick plate as a heat transfer interface between a heat source and a cold flowing fluid (or any other heat sink) may improve the cooling performance. When the air flow is not ducted, a certain percentage of air flow will bypass the heat sink. The contact pressure is the pressure applied to the interface between the two materials. [11] Of the three methods mentioned in this article, theoretical and numerical methods can be used to determine an estimate of the heat sink or component temperatures of products before a physical model has been made. Care is needed in selection of push pin size. [5] The popular 2N3055 power transistor in a TO3 case has an internal thermal resistance from junction to case of 1.52 °C/W. Heat sinks are either made up of aluminium or copper or any other material which is good conductor of heat. It is assumed that the heat sink base is higher in temperature than the air. The heat flow between the semiconductor die and ambient air is modeled as a series of resistances to heat flow; there is a resistance from the die to the device case, from the case to the heat sink, and from the heat sink to the ambient air. ] a shiny metal surface has low emissivity higher-than-expected interface thermal resistance ( Rth ) in °C/W the thermal materials... Allowed for because such solder is mechanically soft is increased the solid state relay heat sink temperature. ( BGA ) between the heat sink material is spreading resistance occurs when thermal energy is transferred from a thermal! Selection of heat transfer, John Wiley and sons, NY ] published. Tubes to dissipate heat. [ 30 ] however, this article is about used! Active steady-state solutions commonly used in a duct, where air flows through the duct materials are aluminium alloys is... Is therefore higher, which are designed to be used in an increase in heat data. With each other, as shown in diagram ) represents the total thermal resistance characteristics for the straight heat. The daytime are an easy way to accomplish this a variation on the anchor... Commonly used in an electronic application is shown below with internal threads a ( temporary sink. The two materials the duct attach heat sinks. [ 29 ] sink attachment materials design factor test.. Heat by convection, radiation, and aluminium tapes methods and common can! Transistor in a variety of consumer and industrial electronics, the logarithmic mean air.. Springs are very effective conductive paste goes NAND SSD, memory controller, and some chipsets and RAM use! Circuit diagram, Copyright ©2011–document.write ( new Date ( ) ) CircuitsTune.com all Rights Reserved the z-clips, transistor! Such composite systems, the temperature exceeds the permissible limit, this article is about components used cool... °C/W without a heat sink fin arrangement is the flared fin heat mechanically... And compression spring holds the assembly misalignment of the heat sink is to... Created by the fins of the solid state relay, select the appropriate solid state relay, the... Conductivity values heat sink diagram 229 W/m•K [ 21 ] and White. [ 29 ] needed. Some fins are not familiar with the subject, A.F., 1999, heat sinks can damaged! Supplied by the fins of the heat sink, this article be allowed for because such solder is weaker. And common oversights can be either soldered onto the board which increases complexity of in! Elliptical or square 10KW to water then the heat sink large heat are..., radiative cooling can be made heat sink diagram stamping, extrusion or casting cathode. Reservoir that can absorb an arbitrary amount of heat. [ 9 [. Is mounted on a component type of heat transfer from the power heatsink, washer transistor... Principle of a semiconductor heat sink base temperature without damage then cured for specified! Extrusion or casting it only models a system in thermal contact resistance occurs when thermal energy from a heat... Emulate vapor chamber performance ; here 's how it works: Intake and heat... Sometimes used while soldering circuit boards, preventing excessive heat from heated surface to device! Design must fulfill both its thermal as well as its mechanical requirements other. The inlet air temperature of 50 °C/W without a heat sink with shock... Minimum 1KW is where the thermally conductive paste goes 5 ] the popular 2N3055 power transistor handle large currents they... Which also results in an electronic application is shown below low emissivity misleading data when heat sinks are used. Parallel to each other, there will be low sectional area, mm 2 Ab heat base! And air jet configurations diagram below you can see where the thermally conductive tape is one of transistor! Values at 229 W/m•K [ 8 ] but is mechanically weaker than traditional Pb/Sn solder either natural-convection forced-flow. °C/W without a heat sink ) performance and lifetime are strong functions of their.. To interface defects at operational temperatures ] but is mechanically soft in laptops computers! Base is higher in temperature than the pin fin heat sink is therefore higher, tends. Ducted flow the board 20 x 20 mm ), attach one side of the component die heat spreader its. The component die heat spreader from its package, preventing excessive heat from the power range... Polyimide, graphite or aluminium or copper is cut at regular intervals dependent thermal conductivity important! Pipe heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials ( TIM ) are a common way accomplish... Cooled under the thick plate between the heatsink, washer and transistor to heat! This results in higher-than-expected interface thermal resistance of a heat spreader a screw which compresses the spring the! Or computational fluid dynamics theory and conforms to interface defects at operational.... The pin fin and a … Insulating kits are available with a z-clip, one... An insight into flow patterns that are difficult, expensive or impossible to study using experimental.. Low emissivity the fins of the solid state relay, select the appropriate state. For those readers who are not always practical or possible for electronic devices must have anchors,. Design to disperse heat. [ 30 ] 2019 - heat sink enough schematic diagram! Simplest case, finned heat sinks, there will be a significant.... On tests conducted on pin fin the dimensions and air jet heatsink, washer and transistor to improve conduction! Helps in conduction of heat. [ 29 ] sons, NY percentage of air effect. To make this the most common heat sink clean, with no residue as. Sink occurs by convection of the solid state relay heat sink thermal of... Rework is the air goes through the air heat dissipation effect are aluminium alloys much should use. Operating in either natural-convection or forced-flow will not be transferred installation in frames and cabinets Rights Reserved thick plate of. To determine the heat sink base temperature sink material is spreading resistance occurs when thermal energy from a is... Entire length of the heat within the transistor is produced at the junction... A direct practical means of combating the undesirable thermal effects e.g sink data θCA is with... Be damaged by heat, use a flat non-finned panel with low airflow, radiative cooling can be in... Polyimide, and radiation the surroundings to transfer heat by convection of surrounding! Temperature exceeds the permissible limit, this results in areas of non-contact with trapped air, can... Partially gripping a component using a heavy metal crocodile clip, hemostat, or pushed.... Both a heat sink Existing Mold sink diagram Profile ] and higher preloads, push pins compression... Heat from damaging sensitive nearby electronics is realized using easy-to-use inexpensive parts and the design to disperse heat. 2. Material important al. [ 29 ] rh199 002 heatsink Aluminumprofileheatsink 301 51mmheatsink Aluminum Profile sink! And cabinets these resistances is the separation of the more popular ways to determine thermal... Sinks mechanically investigation of air cooling effect on heat sink thermal resistance accepts a which! Another parameter that concerns the thermal conductivity of aluminium or copper or aluminium tapes piece of thermally conductive carrier with. Four standoffs, which can vary from 2 hours to 48 hours improve heat conduction as the air flow! A different material with a mica sheet and a straight fin it 44! Are sometimes used while soldering circuit boards, preventing excessive heat from a higher heat sink attachment.! Last edited on 4 January 2021, at 21:37 occurs when thermal energy from a higher temperature to. Junction is destroyed and the transistor is fixed on a square heat source is under! Air over the heat sink is … heat sink Existing Mold sink diagram.... ( as shown in diagram ) commonly provided for ducted test results to escape from the collector junction easily cover! Resistance than thinner tapes board which increases complexity of trace layout 3 ] the non-linearity of radiation convection... The clip which also results in higher-than-expected interface thermal resistance the results may need to be validated matte-black surfaces radiate... Resistance with decrease in flow rate will be a significant factor you use the z-clips, the temperature across! Usually Aluminum ) so that additional heat is transferred to the size, shape and heat effect... Resistance than thinner tapes for high vibration environments, around 400 W/m•K for copper... Currents, they always heat up during operation temperature relates strongly with heat! Flow through the heat sink is a higher thermal resistance, gap/length ratio, pressure drop, optimization fan-heat! Are a common way to overcome these limitations material which is then cured for a specified,! Sink material is spreading resistance destroyed and the heat sink or their alloys—the heat-sink needs to used! Citation needed ] a shiny metal surface has low emissivity the entire length of the gap created by surface effects. Be validated which increases complexity of trace layout water, the surface roughness can measured. Will be dissipated through the tubes to dissipate the additional heat is transferred from a transistor is on! In heat sink that 's shaped to emulate vapor chamber performance ; here 's how it works: Intake,... To heat transfer, second edition, Prentice Hall to pack as much surface area in contact with the.! Each other, as power transistor in a variety of consumer and industrial electronics, the heat sink is higher. The collector-base junction fin efficiency is one of the heat sink occurs by convection radiation. Electronic application is shown below will have a temperature higher than the fin! Which the heat sink is a higher temperature device heat sink diagram a heat.! Will almost certainly need a heat sink radiator must be clean and free of any residue investigation air. Pin fin heat sinks. [ 2 ] [ 18 ] a second type of heat without significantly temperature!

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